Medieval Coin Denominations

My plan for this page is to hopefully demystify, to some degree, the amazingly complex web of medieval coinage denominations and types.

TABLE OF GROSCHEN TYPES
This table is a modified and compacted version of one found in some earlier Busso Peus auction catalogues

MONEY-ISSUING AREAS ROUGH DATE DENOMINATION EQUIVALENTS
LOWER RHENISH
Aachen, Berg, Cleve, Essen, Gueldres, Heinsburg, Hesse, Jülich, Köln, Luxembourg, Mainz, Metz, Mörs, Nassau, Neuss, Pfalz, Pfalz-Simmern, Randerath, Schoonvorst, Trier, Verden
1300 Grosspfennig 2½ Pfennig
5 Obole
1318 Sterling 4 Pfennig
1328 Turnosen (Schilling)
12 Pfennig
(16 Kleiner Pf.)
1335 Groschen 10 Pfennig
1338 Groschen
· 1348 saw a monetary union between Trier, Jülich, Köln, and Luxembourg
12 Pfennig
1368 Weisspfennig (2.55g)
(Double Schilling)
18½ Weisspf. = 1 Florin
24 Kleiner Pfennig
1385

Weisspfennig
· 1372 saw a monetary union between Köln and Trier
· 1386 saw a monetary union between Mainz, Köln, Trier, and the Palatinate (Pfalz)

12 Grosse Pfennig
1488 Albus
(Double Schilling)
26 Albus = 1 Florin
12 Pfennig
1493 Banken = 2 Albus  

LOW COUNTRIES
Artois, Brabant, Flanders, Gueldres, Hennegau, Holland, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Utrecht, Zeeland
1270 Cavalier (2/3 Turnose) 2 Sterling
1290 Turnose 3 Sterling
1339 Löwengroschen
· 1339 - Monetary Union between Louis of Crecy, the Dukes of Flanders, and Johann III of Brabant
 
1365 Boddrager (4.2g, Double Groschen)  
  Gros (1.7g)

24 Flanders mites
36 Brabant mites
8 Holland Pfennigs
12 Hennegau Pfennigs

c.1430 Stüber
· 1434 - Ordinance of Phillip the Good for his possessions
2 Gros (Briquet)

HANSEATIC LEAGUE
Hamburg, Hannover, Holstein, Lübeck, Lüneburg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Rostock, Stralsund, Stettin, Wismar
1339 Witten (Sterling - 1.33g) 4 Pfennig
1365 Sechsling (Double Sterling) 6 Pfennig
1432 Schilling (2.54g)
26 Schilling = 1 Florin
2 Sechsling
12 Pfennig
1468 Double Schilling (3.39g)
36 Schilling = 1 Florin
24 Pfennig
Teutonic Knights
(Deutscher Orden)
1370 Halbschoter (1 1/3 Schilling) 16 Pfennig
1380 Schilling (1.87g) 12 Pfennig

BOHEMIA and SAXONY
Bohemia, Brandenburg, Brunswick, Halberstadt, Hesse, Lausitz, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mansfeld, Meissen, Saxony, Schwartzburg, Stolburg, Thuringia
c.1300 Prager Groschen (3.7g)
12 Prager Groschen = 1 Florin
 
1338 Meissner Groschen 12 Meissen Heller
8 Thuringian Pfennig
1412 Meissner Groschen 18 Meissen Heller
9 Thuringian Pfennig
Various Judenkopfgroschen
Helmgroschen (1.8g)
Schildgroschen (1.8g) = 3 Schrockgroschen
20 Groschen = 1 Florin
· 1444 - Monetary ordinance in Meissen, Thuringia, and Hesse
 
1465 Horngroschen (1.47g) = 2 Schwertgroschen 12 Pfennig
1474 Spitsgroschen (1.6g)  
1490 Zinsgroschen
21 Zinsgroschen = 1 Florin
 
1498 Schreckenberger (3.9g) = 3 Zinsgroschen
7 Schreckenberger = 1 Florin
 
1534 3½ Zinsgroschen
24 Zinsgroschen = 1 Florin
 

FRANKISH
Bamberg, Brandenburg-im-Franken, Coburg, Fulda, Henneburg, Nürnburg, Würzburg
1390

Halbgroschen
· 1396 - Association between Nürnburg, and the bishoprics of Bamberg and Würzburg

4 Pfennig (Würzburg)
  Schilling (1.88g) 6 Pfennig
12 Heller
1457 Schwerer Schilling (Nürnburg) 8 Pfennig
10 Pfennig (later)
  Leichter Schilling (Bamberg-Würzburg)
· Association renewed through 1520
7 Pfennig
Brandenburg i. d. M.   Groschen (2.54g)  

SWABIAN
Aulendorf, Augsburg, Baden, Biberach, Buchhorn, Constanz, Esslingen, Giengen, Gmünd, Hohnberg, Isny, Kaufbeuren, Kempten, Leutkirch, Lindau, Memmingen, Öttingen, Radolfzell, St. Gallen, Überlingen, Ulm, Wangen, Württemberg
1396 Schilling (1.69g)
15 Schilling = 1 Florin
· 1396 - Kirchheimer monetary union between Leopold of Austria, Augsburg, Württemberg, Esslingen, Gmünd, Ulm, and Öttingen.
6 Pfennig
12 Heller
after
1430
26-28 Schilling = 1 Florin
· 1423 Reidlinger monetary union
· 1479 Monetary union between Baden and Württemberg
 

UPPER RHENISH
Basel, Bern, Colmar, Breisach, Elsass, Freiburg, Schaffhausen, Zürich
1425 Plappart (1.62g)
· 1425 - Rappenmünzbund (Rappen money federation)
6 Rappenpfennig
  Groschen = 2 Plappart
20 Groschen = 1 Florin
12 Rappenpfennig

FRANCE, Royal Monetary Issues
This table is based on data from "The History of Currency", W. Shaw and "Les Monnaies Royales Francaises", L. Ciani

The system of reckoning the money of account in France throughout the period was as follows:
1 Livre (
Pound) = 20 Sous (Schillings, Solidus) = 240 Deniers (Pence, Denars) = 480 Oboles = 960 Pites (Farthings)
1 Sou = 12 Deniers, 1 Denier = 2 Oboles, 1 Obole = 2 Pites
The sou is also called a "sol".

Table of Gold Coinages
ISSUE DATE NAME EQUIV. VALUE
(value at initial issue, actual values fluctuated frequently)
NOTES
1226 Agnel 150 deniers Possibly not first issued until c. 1250
1295 Gros Royal 300 d.  
1305 Petit Royal 165 d.  
1308

Chaise d'Or

300 d.


1310 Masse d'Or 360 d.
 
1310 Agnelet 240 d.  
1321 Agnel 240 d.  
1325 Royal Double 300 d.  
1329 Parisis d'Or
Royal Double
450 d.
270 d.
 
1330 Agnel 175 d.  
1331 Royal 270 d.  
1336 Ecu d'Or 240 d.  
1338 Lion d'Or 300 d.  
1339 Pavillion
Couronne d'Or
360 d.
480 d.
 
1340 Anges
Demi-Anges
900 d.
450 d.
 
1351 Fleur-de-Lis 480 d.  
1354 Mouton d'Or 300 d.  
1357 Petit Mouton d'Or 150 d.  
1360 Franc 240 d.  
1384 Ecu a la Couronne 264 d.  
1417 Ecu Heaume 480 d.  
1421 Saluts d'Or 300 d.  
1475 Ecu au Soleil 396 d.  
1507 Ecu au porc-epic 435 d.  
1539 Ecu a la Salemand 540 d.  
1540 Ecu a la croisette 540 d.  
1549 Henri d'Or 600 d.  
1640 Louis d'Or 2400 d.  

___________________________________________________________
Table of Silver Coinages

The "Tournois" and "Parisis" in the table is based on the fact that the two weight systems varied by as much as 25% from each other. In general, however, the ratio was 4 livres Parisis = 5 livres Tournois. In 1667 this dual system was abolished and the livre Tournois became the single standard.
ISSUE DATE NAME EQUIV. VALUE
(value at initial issue, actual values fluctuated)
NOTES
1226 Gros Tournois 12 d.  
1295 Petit Tournois 6 d.  
1310 Bourgeois Forte 2 d. (Parisis)  
1311 Bourgeois Singles 1 d. (Parisis)  
1313 Denier Tournois
Denier Parisis
1 d.
1 d. (Parisis)
 
1322 Obole Blanche 6 d. (Parisis)  
1326 Obole Blanche 8 d. (Tournois)  
1330 Gros Parisis 12 d.  
1336 Gros a la Couronne 22 d. (Tournois)  
1340 Gros a la Fleur-de-Lis 15 d.  
1346 Double Parisis 2 d. (Parisis)  
1347 Double Tournois 2 d. (Tournois)  
1351 Blancs
Gros Tournois Blancs
6 d. (Parisis)
8 d. (Tournois)
 
1354 Blanc a la Couronne 5 d. (Tournois)  
1355 Blanc a la Fleur-de-Lis 8 d.  
1359 Gros Blancs
Blancs aux trois Fleur-de-Lis
Gros a l'estoile
15 d.
15 d.
30 d.
 
1364 Gros d'Argent 15 d.  
1384 Blanc a l'Ecu 10 d.  
1425 Grand Blanc 15 d.  
1434 Petit Blanc 5 d.  
1475 Blanc au Soleil 12 d.  
1513 Testoon 120 d.  
1539 Blanc a la Salemand 12 d.  
1541 Douzains a la Croisette 12 d.  
1547 Douzains 12 d.  
1575 Francs 240 d.  
1580 Quart d'Ecu 180 d.  
1641 Louis d'Argent 720 d.  

NETHERLANDS and Surrounding Areas
Table of Gold coinages
DATE OF ISSUE NAME EQUIVALENT VALUE LOCATION of INITIAL ISSUE
1337 Ecu d'Or
Gouden Schild
40 Groschen (1400) France
1344 Noble
Schuitken
  England
1355 Mouton d'Or
Gouden Lamm
Half denomination as well
20 Turnosegroschen (Gros Tournois) France
1365

Royal d'Or
Royalen

 

France

  Lion d'Or
Gouden Leeuw
Half denomination as well
60 Groschen
Flanders
1367 Double Mouton d'Or
Dubbele Lamm
  Brabant
1375 Goldgulden
Rijnse Gouden
  Florence and the Rhenish territories
1385 Couronne d'Or
Goudenkroon
40 Groschen France
c.1400 Cavalier d'Or
Gouden Rijder
  Gueldres
1466-1489 Andreasgulden
Andriesgulden
20 Stüber (24 Stüber after 1474)  
1486 Real d'Or 1½ Karolusgulden after 1521  
1496 Goldenes Vlies
Gulden Vlies
50 Stüber  
  Philippsgulden
Phillipusgulden
25 Stüber  
1521 Karolusgulden    

Table of Silver coinages

DATE OF ISSUE NAME EQUIVALENT VALUE LOCATION of INITIAL ISSUE
c. 800 Pfennig
Penning
240 Pfennig = 20 Schilling = 1 Pound  
c. 1000-1100 Pfennig 160 Pfennig = 8 oz. weight = 1 Köln Mark  
  Obol ½ Pfennig  
1100's

Köpfchen
Maille

 


1200's Sterling
Double Sterling
Esterlin
4 light Pfennig
2 Mailles/Köpfchen
England - the Sterling was modelled from the English Penny
Later 1200's Gros Tournois
12 light Pfennig
3 Sterling
France
1337 Groschen
Vlaamse Groot
Leeuwengroot
24 Flanders Mites
8 Holland Penning
Flanders
1340 Turnosegroschen   Köln
1365 Double Groschen
Plak
Boddrager
Krumsteert
Tuinen
8 Brabant Pfennig
16 Holland Penning
Flanders
1390 Braspfennig
Braspenning
2½ Groschen (= 1¼ Stüber) Flanders
1434 Groschen 36 Brabant Mites
24 Flanders Mites (= 12 Korte)
12 Hennegau Pfennig
8 Holland Penning
Brabant
Hennegau
Holland
1434 Stüber (Stuyver) 2 Groschen
16 Holland Penning
48 Brabant Mites
4 Duits
Flanders
1435 Double Stüber
Jager
  Groningen
1480's Griffon
Double and Half as well
4 Stüber  
1496 Silveren Vlies
Vliezen
Toison d'Argent
3 Stüber  
1500 Schilling
Snaphaan
Roosschilling
Arendsschilling
6 Stüber (Gueldres)  
1538 Thaler
Daalder
c. 30 Stüber Schlick, Nijmegen, Gueldres
1555 Ecu Philippe
Philipsdaalder
35 Stüber
½ Real d'Or
 

The workhorse denomination unit of the western Low Countries in the later Middle Ages was the Stuiver. Most other denominations are multiples and divisions of it, according to the following table.

DENOMINATION NAME EQUIVALENT
STUIVERS
AVERAGE
WEIGHT
NOTES
Ducat
100
--
 
Goudgulden
65
--
 
Double Daalder
60
--
 
Reaal d' Or
50
4.9-5.2g
Struck in the 15th and 16th c. and of equal value to the later silver Patagons and Rijksdaalders.
Patagon
50
27.6-28.1g
The name means 'heavy' and is related to the word 'piedfort', a term denoting a coin struck on a thick flan. They appear in the early 1600s and the hammered examples are often of crude quality. There are rare Double Patagons equivalent to a Ducat.
Rijksdaalder
50
28.3-28.5g
The equivalent of the Reichsthaler, struck from the later 16th c.
Daalder
30
--
This is the equivalent of the Thaler, struck beginning in the mid-16th c.
Florin
28
3.2-3.4g
 
Gulden
20
--
 
Reaal d' Argent
8
7.0-7.2g
Very large and beautiful coins of the late 15th c., there are at least two early dates and both are very rare and valuable.
Schelling
6
--
A later silver coin, occasionally billon of variable value from 5-8 Stuivers, a 6-8 Stuiver version is also known as the Snaphaan. Schellings used outside the Netherlands proper were often called Escalins.
Vlieger
4
2.5-2.7g
A finer silver coin also known as a Double Jager or Krabbelaar. The name Vlieger probably refers to the flying stance of the eagle on the coin compared to the Jager. Vliegers appear in the 1470s and in some areas are known as Braspfennigs.
Vuurijzer
--
The Dutch equal of the Brabant and Burgundian Briquet. See the Belgium table.
Jager
2
2.5-2.8g
A base silver or billon coin dating to the 1450's, heavily minted in Groningen showing an eagle with two shields. Later coins of two Stuivers were called Dubbeltje
Stuiver
1
1.8-2.1g
Valued at 8 Duits or 6 Plaks, the name 'Stuiver' is of uncertain origin but is possibly based on a minting term.
Blank
½-¾
--
A small inferior silver coin of varying value, assumed to be named for its shiny white silver appearance.
Groot
½
1.2-1.4g
The Dutch 'Groschen' or 'Groat' of four Duits, it's plural is Grooten.
Vierling
¼
A four Penning piece
Plak
1/6
0.5-0.6g
The name 'Plak' is derived from the French 'Plaque', assumed to mean a thin plate of metal. The Plak is usually a poor billon coin. The plural is Plakken.
Duit
1/8
--
Established by the mint ordinance of 1586 to equal two Penning
Penning
1/16
--
The Dutch 'Pfennig' or 'Penny'
Mite
1/48
~1.0g
Little copper or base silver coins of variable value from 2-4 to a Penning. There is one early date copper mite from Gand in Flanders.
Punt
1/96
--
Tiny copper coins valued at six to a Penning.

 

BELGIUM, FRISIA, & VICINITY
Its proximity to the other low countries makes the coinage of the modern-day Belgian territories similar to that of the Netherlands. Many denominations are nearly equivalent but have different names

DENOMINATION NAME EQUIVALENT
STUIVERS
AVERAGE
WEIGHT
NOTES
Double Briquet,
Dubbeljte Vuurijzer
4-4½
2.8-3.1g
(.798 Ag)
A finer silver coin, the Double Briquet is differentiated by showing two facing lions
Briquet, Vuurijzer
2-2¼
2.8-3.0g
(.399 Ag)
A small silver coin of the 15th c. usually showing a lion with a briquet, or fire-striking steel, in its claw. Known as a Vuurijzer in some states.
Patard
1
A coin of roughly equivalent value to the stuiver, issued in the later 15th c.