TRIER, City and Archbishopric

According to the Gesta Treverorum, the city was founded by Trebeta, an Assyrian prince, centuries before ancient Rome. The Roman Empire subdued the Treveri in the 1st century BC and established Augusta Treverorum (Lit: August (Regal, noble) [City] of the Treveri) in 30 BC. Although the name is more likely to be taken from the title Augustus held by the Princeps or head of state at the time, Augustus Caesar. The city later became the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica, as well as the Roman prefecture of Gaul. The Porta Nigra counts among the Roman architecture of the city. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. The Franks occupied Trier from the Roman administration in 459 AD. In 870 it became part of Eastern Francia, which developed into the Holy Roman Empire. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages. The bishops of the city grew increasingly powerful, and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473.

In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, and the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in finally claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century. The city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, although the rebels were forced to concede. It became part of the German Empire in 1871.

Trier, as the important Roman provincial capital of Augusta Treverorum, had been the seat of a bishop since Roman times. It was raised to archiepiscopal status during the reign of Charlemagne. The bishops of Trier were already virtually independent territorial magnates in Merovingian times. In 772 Charlemagne granted Bishop Wiomad complete immunity from the jurisdiction of the ruling count for all the churches and monasteries, as well as villages and castles that belonged to the Church of St. Peter at Trier. In 816 Louis the Pious confirmed to Archbishop Hetto the privileges of protection and immunity granted by his father.

At the partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, Trier fell to Lothair; at the partition of Lotharingia at Mersen in 870, it fell to the East Frankish kingdom, which developed into Germany. Archbishop Radbod received in 898 complete immunity from all taxes for the entire episcopal territory, granted by Zwentibold, the natural son of Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia, who reigned briefly as King of Lotharingia and, under great pressure from his independent nobles, desperately needed a powerful ally. The gift cemented the position of the archbishops as territorial lords in their own right. Following Zwentibold's assassination in 900, the handlers of the child-king Louis courted Radbold in their turn, granting him the district and city of Trier outright, and the right to have a mint — as much a symbol of independent authority as an economic tool — and to impose customs-duties. From the court of Charles the Simple he obtained the final right, that of election of the Bishop of Trier by the chapter, free of Imperial interference.

The last archbishop-elector removed to Koblenz in 1786. From 1795, the territories of the Archbishopric on the left bank of the Rhine — which is to say almost all of them — were under French occupation, and were annexed in 1801 and a separate bishopric established (later assuming control of the whole diocese in 1803). In 1803, what was left of the Archbishopric was secularized and annexed by the Princes of Nassau. In 1821 the new Diocese of Trier was created as a suffragan of the archbishopric of Cologne.

List of Bishops and Archbishops:

* Eucharius c. 250
* Valerius c. 250
* Maternus c.300
* Agricius (Agrippinus) 327-335
* Maximinus II 335-352
* Paulinus 353-358
* Bonosus 359-365
* Vetranius 365-384
* Felix II 384-398
* Mauritius II 398-407
* Leontius 407-409
* Auctor II 409-427
* Severus 428-455
* Cyrillus 455-457
* Iamblichus 457-458
* Evemerus 458-461
* Marcus II 461-465
* Volusianus 465-469
* Miletius 469-476
* Modestus 476-479
* Maximianus 479-499
* Fibicius 500-526
* Aprunculus (Aprunentius) 526-527
* Nicetius 527-566
* Rusticus II 566-573
* Magneric 573-596
* Gundwich 596-600
* Sibald 600-626
* Modoald 626-645
* Numerianus 645-665
* Hildulf 665-671, d. 707

* Basinus 671-697 d. 706 ?
* Ludwin 697-718
* Milo 718-758
* Wermad 758-791
* Richbod 791-804 , first archbishop
* Waso 804-809
* Amalhar 809-814
* Hetto 814-847
* Dietgold 847-868
* Bartholf von Wetterau 869-883
* Radbod 883-915
* Rudgar 915-930
* Rudbrecht 930-956
* Heinrich I 956-964
* Dietrich I 965-977
* Egbert 977-993
* Ludolf 994-1008
* Megingod 1008-1015
* Poppo von Babenberg 1016-1047
* Eberhard 1047-1066
* Kuno I von Wetterau (Conrad) 1066-1066
* Udo of Nellenburg 1066-1078
* Egilbert of Rothenburg, 1079-1101
* Bruno 1101-1124
* Gottfrid 1124-1127
* Meginher 1127-1130
* Adalberon von Munsterol 1131-1152
* Hillin von Fallemanien 1152-1169
* Arnold I 1169-1183
* Fulmar 1183-1189
* John I 1189–1212
* Theodoric II (Dietrich von Wied) 1212–42
* Arnold II von Isenburg 1242–59
* Heinrich I von Finstingen 1260–86
* Bohemond I von Warnesberg 1286–99
* Diether von Nassau 1300–07
* Heinrich III von Virneburg 1300–06 (opposition)
* Baldwin von Luxemburg 1307–54
* Bohemond II von Saarbrücken 1354–61
* Kuno II von Falkenstein 1362–88
* Werner von Falkenstein 1388–1418
* Otto von Ziegenhain 1418–30
* Rhaban von Helmstadt 1430–38
* Jakob von Sierk 1439–56
* Johann II of Baden 1456–1503
* Jakob II of Baden 1503–11
* Richard Greiffenklau zu Vollraths 1511–31
* Johann III von Metzenhausen 1531–40
* Johann Ludwig von Hagen 1540–47
* Johann IV von Isenburg 1547–56
* Johann V von der Leyen 1556–67
* Jakob III von Eltz 1567–81
* Johann VI von Schonenberg 1581–99
* Lothar von Metternich 1599–1623
* Philipp Christoph von Sotern 1623–52
* Karl Kaspar von der Leyen 1652–76
* Johann Hugo von Orsbeck 1676–1711
* Charles Joseph of Lorraine 1711–15
* Franz Ludwig of Palatinate-Neuburg 1716–29
* Franz Georg von Schönborn-Buchheim 1729–56
* Johann Philipp von Walderdorf 1756–68
* Clemens Wenzel of Saxony 1768–1803

Key identification notes: The leftward rampant stag on Stolberg's coins is unique among German coins and is an instant identifier to coins of its territories and lines.

3 Petermenger

Petermengers